Tajikistan belongs to the Samanid Empire. The Tajik people were ruled over by the Russian in the early 1860s. Silenced in the early 1920s during the Russian Civil War, the Basmachi uprising actually began in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Within Uzbekistan, Tajikistan became an 'Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics', an essential part of the Soviet Union in late 1924.
Further, in 1929, Tajikistan was granted the reserved rights of being one of the republics of the Soviet Union – the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic. The country held on to the new found position until its independence in 1991. Soon the Soviet Union dissolved to being nothing but Russian empire.
Tajikistan has since then experienced changes in the Civil war as well as the ruling government system. Signed in 1997, by the rival factions, the Peace Agreement marked the beginning of a new era.
The Republic of Tajikistan had already experienced population changes that carried along with them social and political impacts from the Middle East and Asian empires before the Soviet era.
In the fourth century B.C., the conquers of Alexander the Great subsequently led to the building of the cities of Khujand and Panjakent. With Alexander came the Zoroastrian religion and the Persian language and culture. It spread throughout the region in no time.
People started converting to Islam, not before the seventh century and soon by the ninth century, Islam had become the most prevalent religion in the country.
With the Uzbeki nomads vanquishing different parts of Central Asia, Tajik future got divided into three states until the nineteenth century- the Kokand Khanate in the Fergana Valley, the Uzbek-ruled Bukhara Khanate and the huge kingdom of Afghanistan.
However, the conquered lands were slowly overhauled by merchants, traders and immigrants from the Russian Empire. Tajikistan became an independent, self-governing republic within Uzbekistan province in the year 1925. Finally in 1929, after the separation of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, the country was granted the complete status as a republic.
Also, in 1991, Nabiyev was installed as president after a revolution, that occurred after the declaration of independence of Tajikistan by the Soviet Union. This also led to a sudden intensification of anti-Russian feelings and nationalism and another Civil War tore the country apart in 1992.
The Soviet era brought in security, education, stability and built strong economic foundations apart from the social assimilation among the ethnic groups that was never achieved before the era. Today, the Tajik people peek into their history as a developing national idea and identify the Persian-speaking Samanids of Bukhara as the cult that promoted a renaissance in the written Persian language and helped in the restoration of the cultural ideals of the Zoroastrians.
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